Prof. Carl Cater


Visiting Professor

In addition to being a visiting member of the Centre for Recreation and Tourism Research, Carl is also an Associate Professor in Tourism at Swansea University in Wales, having previously worked in Australia and England.


Dr Cater's research centers on the experiential turn in tourism and the growth of special interest sectors, particularly adventure tourism and ecotourism, and their contribution to development. He has written over fifty papers and book chapters, is co-author of Marine Ecotourism: Between the Devil and the Deep Blue Sea (CABI, 2007) and editor of the Encyclopaedia of Sustainable Tourism (CABI, 2015). Dr Cater is also an editorial board member of Tourism Planning and Development, Tourist Studies, Tourism Geographies, Journal of Ecotourism, and Tourism in Marine Environments. He has supervised many PhD students and examined theses globally.

Dr Cater has travelled to over 80 countries and undertaken field research, supervision, curriculum oversight and teaching worldwide, including Australia, China, Malta, Nepal, New Zealand, Norway, Papua New Guinea, Tibet and Vanuatu. He has worked on projects for the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, NSW Department of Education, the World Tourism and Travel Council, Gold Coast City Council, Tourism Queensland and the Tourism Society.

He is a fellow of the Royal Geographical Society, a qualified pilot, scuba diver, lifesaver, sailor, mountain and tropical forest leader, and maintains an interest in both the practice and pursuit of sustainable outdoor tourism activity. Whenever he can, he also loves to spend time at the family croft on Fladda, Rassay.




Research Interests

Tourism development

Adventure tourism


Marine Ecotourism

Field-based education


PhD, University of Bristol ‘Beyond the Gaze: The reflexive tourist and the search for embodied experience’. Funded by ESRC.

M.Sc Society and Space, University of Bristol

BSc Geography, University of Bristol


Miller, M., Balslev Clausen, H. and Cater, C. (2022) Cultivating deep learning in field-based tourism courses: Finding purpose in ‘trouble’ Journal of Teaching in Travel & Tourism  

Dabamona, S. A., Cater, C., Cave, J. and Low, T. (2021). Cultural identity through an educational school trip: voices of native Papuan students Tourism Management Perspectives

Garcia, O.  & Cater, C. (2020) Life Below Water; challenges for tourism partnerships in achieving ocean literacy. Journal of Sustainable Tourism.

Cater, C., Albayrak, T., Caber, M., & Taylor, S. (2020) Flow, Satisfaction and Storytelling: A Causal Relationship? Evidence from Scuba Diving in Turkey. Current Issues in Tourism. 

Cater, C., Miller, M.C., & Nyaupane, R. (2020). Mountain tourism development using the Sustainable Livelihoods Approach: A case study of Dhorpatan valley, Nepal. Journal of Tourism and Himalayan Adventures: International Research Journal, 2(1), pp 1-18.

Albayrak, T., Caber, M., & Cater, C. (2019). Mass tourism underwater: a segmentation approach to motivations of scuba diving holiday tourists. Tourism Geographies, 1-16.

Cater, C.I. & Miller, M.C. (2019) Mountaineering and Trekking Tourism Management: A global perspective. Journal of Nepal Mountain Academy. 1(1) 28-45

Cater, C., Poguntke, K. and Morris (2019). Y Wladfa Gymreig: Diasporic tourism and the role of identity. Tourism Geographies. 21:4, 665-686,

Dabamona, S. A., & Cater, C. (2019). Understanding students’ learning experience on a cultural school trip: findings from Eastern Indonesia. Journal of Teaching in Travel & Tourism, 19:3, 216-233.

Cater, C., Low,T. & Keirle, I. (2018) Reworking Student Understanding

of Tourism Mobility: Experiences of Migration and Exchange on a Field Trip, Tourism Planning & Development, 15:5, 600-613

Cater, C., Funk, D. and Low, T. (2018) Adventure Racing and Active Lifestyles. Annals of Leisure Research. 21:5, 605-611

Cater, C. (2017) Tourism on two wheels: Patterns of Motorcycle Leisure in Wales. Tourism Management, 61, 180-189. (SNIP 2.643)

Wang, J, Cater, C and Low, T. (2016) Political Challenges in Community-based Ecotourism. Journal of Sustainable Tourism. 24(11), 1555-1568. (SNIP 1.72)

Dash, G and Cater, C (2015) Gazing Awry: Reconsidering the Tourist Gaze and natural tourism through a Lacanian-Marxist theoretical framework. Tourist Studies 15 (3):  267-282.

Cater, C (2010) Steps To Space; Opportunities For Astrotourism. Tourism Management. 31: 838–845. Elsevier. doi:10.1016/j.tourman.2009.09.001 (SNIP 2.643)

Cater, C (2010) Any Closer and You’d Be Lunch!: Interspecies Interactions As Nature Tourism At Marine Aquaria. Journal of Ecotourism. Volume 9 Issue 2, 133-148. Taylor and Francis. (SNIP 0.544)

Bentley, T. A., Cater, C. and Page, S.J. (2010) Adventure and ecotourism safety in Queensland: Operator experiences and practice. Tourism Management. Volume 31, Issue 5, October 2010, Pages 563-571 (SNIP 2.643)

Cater, C (2008) The Life Aquatic: Scuba Diving and the Experiential Imperative. Journal of Tourism in Marine Environments, 5:4 pp. 233-244 Cognizant.

Buckley, R., Cater, C., Zhong, L. and Chen, T. (2008) Shengtai Luyou: A Chinese Perspective on Ecotourism. Annals of Tourism Research. 35:4:945–968 Pergamon.

Cater, C and Cloke, P. (2007) Bodies in Action: The Performativity of Adventure Tourism. Anthropology Today 23:6

Cater, C. (2006) Playing with Risk? Participant perceptions of risk and management implications in adventure tourism. Tourism Management 27:2. 317-325. Elsevier.

Cater, C. (2000) Can I play too? Exclusion and inclusion in Adventure Tourism. In North West Geographer, 3:2: 50-60.

Conference Presentations:

Cater, C. (2021) Inward and outward mobility evaluation of remote mountain regions using the Sustainable Livelihoods Approach. Centre for Local and Regional Enterprise, Aberystwyth Business School, Aberystwyth University 1st December 2021.

Cater, C (2021) Expert Panel on Creating Sustainable Livelihoods. United Nations World Oceans Day Tuesday 8th June 2021   

Cater, C (2020) Marketing of Adventure Tourism Destinations. Adventure Tourism: Challenges & Opportunities in the COVID-19 era. National Institute of Water Sport, Ministry of Tourism, Government of India in association with IITTM-NOIDA, IITTM-Nellore Campuses & PHD Chamber of Commerce and Industry 28/07/2020

Garcia, O. and Cater, C. (2019) Life Below Water; The role of place based tourism partnerships in achieving ocean literacy. 4th Caribbean-International Tourism Conference - December 11 - 13, 2019, UWI Cave Hill, Barbados

Albayrak, T. & Cater, C. (2019) Flow Experience of Scuba Divers: The Case of Kaş, Antalya IV International Conference On Tourism Dynamics And Trends 22-24 October 2019 - University Of Rome Unitelma Sapienza, Rome, ITALY

Cater, C. & Albayrak, T. (2019) Sustainable marine tourism development: the case of scuba diving in Kas, Turkey. 7th International Adventure Conference 17th – 21st June 2019 Dumfries & Galloway, Scotland, UK.

Garcia, O. and Cater, C. (2019) Life Below Water; The role of tourism in achieving ocean literacy and sustainable use of marine resources. Conference on Tourism and the SDGs,  Institute of Development Studies, Massey University, Auckland, New Zealand. 24-25 January 2019.

Huang, M. and Cater, C. (2018) 'Drivers for mountain trekking in Taiwan- Motivation, Involvement and Specialisation. Tourism & Sustainable Development, Kathmandu, Nepal, 16th-18th May 2018

Garcia, O. and Cater, C. (2018) Challenging the climates of change in scuba diving- towards ocean literacy? International Adventure Conference. 30 January – 2 February 2018, Segovia, Spain

Cater, C., Bowen, R. and Low, T. (2017) Narrating place: Destination branding through destination slogans. International Place Branding Association Conference 2017, Swansea, UK